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愛護你的馬,照顧它一生(新增內容:二到四歲)

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發表于 2006-11-26 23:38:00 | 只看該作者 回帖獎勵 |倒序瀏覽 |閱讀模式

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謹以此文獻給所有愛馬的朋友 也忠心地希望更多的馬兒能更好地過完它們的一生 

由于工作量比較大 所以文章會一部分一部分地上傳到網上 等全部完成后 我會再做一個總的整理 如果翻譯有不妥的地方 希望朋友們可以及時指正 

選譯自Keeping A Horse The Natural Way Jo Bird

Caring For Your Horse Throughout Its Life

愛護你的馬,照顧它一生

Like humans, horses do not have a predetermined life span. One thing is for sure,
      
however, a domestic animal has a far greater chance of living well into his twenties than his wild counterpart. Ponies tend to live longer than horses. However, a great deal is dictated by the care, nutrition, and workload experienced by the individual animal. Interestingly, while some breeds –like the Tarpan, which is similar in appearance to the Exmoor pony; the American Buckskin; or horses bred from wild Spanish mustang ancester -remain virtually unaltered from their “wild” profile, modern breeding has fundamentally changed the equine –lightening bone and increasing athleticism while dispensing with some of the hardy traits, such as resistance to bad weather and the ability to survive on poor –quality food. The rapid growth development of some breeds, for example the Thoroughbred, is quite unlike the natural model. For the most part, there is a fairly consistent pattern in the development of an equine from foalhood to old age.

和人類一樣,馬沒有可預見的生命期。然而,可以確定一件事,家養的動物和它的野生伙伴相比能更好地活到二十多歲。矮馬壽命相對較長。然而,壽命在很大程度上受個體動物經歷的照料,營養,以及工作量所支配。有趣的是,一些品種-像與艾克斯木爾矮馬外表相似的歐洲野馬,美洲黃灰馬;或西班牙野馬祖先培育而來的馬-事實上依然沒有改變他們的“野生”外形,現代飼養已經從基礎上改變了馬-骨骼變輕了以及運動練習的增加同時分配了一些強壯的特性,諸如抵抗壞天氣以及在食物質量不高的情況下生存的能力。一些品種的快速發展,像純種馬,跟自然的典型很不一樣。在極大程度上,馬從小馬駒到老馬的發展有一個相當一致的模范。

 

 

 

 

 

 

From Birth To Six Months Old

從出生到六個月

From the moment a foal is born, it faces demands simply to survive. In contrast to babies or puppies and kittens, which can be lifted to their mother’s teats, horses and ponies generally need to stand within a couple of hours to take their first colostrum milk. Unlike other young offspring which can be carried away from danger by their mother, it is amazing to see how foals with their overly long legs can keep pace with their mares from day one. They are born with legs two-thirds of the adult length. This natural phenomenon has been one of the major factors that has allowed wild horses to do so well against their natural predators.

從小馬駒出生那一刻起,它面臨的需要僅僅是生存。嬰兒,小狗以及小貓可以受到幫助來喝他們母親的奶,與他們相比,馬和矮馬通常需要在兩三個小時之內站起來喝它們的第一口初乳。與其他的年幼后代不同,它們會由母親帶它們脫離危險,令人驚奇的是看著小馬駒如何在一天之后用它們過長的腿跟上它們的母親。它們出生的時候腿長就已經達到了成年馬腿長的2/3。這個自然現象已經成為允許野馬能很好地做到躲避它們的自然天敵的重要原因之一。

 

 

 

 

 

 

Before the age of six months (and perhaps for a while after in some cases) a foal will spend its time suckling, sleeping, and growing under the guidance  of the mare. Apart from daily handling, we should not expect too much from such a young animal. Its growth rate is so rapid that it will have reached almost half its adult weight by the time it is seven months old. The protein requirements of a foal from two weeks to ten months are as much as 20 percent of its diet compared with about 12 percent for an adult horse. However, their fiber requirements are low- about six percent of the diet as opposed to 25 percent or more in mature animal.

在六個月之前(以及在一些情況下可能在此之后一段時間),小馬駒會用這些時間來喝奶,睡覺,以及在母馬的指導下成長。除了日常管理,我們不應該對如此年幼的動物有過多的期望。它的成長速度是如此之快,在七個月的時候,它的體重幾乎到達成年馬體重的一半。從兩周到十個月小馬駒的蛋白質需求量為飲食的20%,相比之下成年馬的需求量大概為12%。然而,它們的纖維食物需求量較低-大概為飲食的6%與成年馬的25%或者更多相對比。

 

 

 

 

 

 

For the first few days after birth,the mare and the foal should be allowed peace and quiet away from other animals to form a close bond and to allow the foal to gain in strength. The foal only has the antibodies that it has derived naturally from the mare. It takes several months to build up its own resistance to disease. Wild foals are susceptible to illness, and many are lost in this way. We are fortunate that we can vaccinate domastic foals against many diseases, like tetanus and equine influenza. It is also important to begin a worming regimen from the age of one month as foals are susceptible to worms picked up via their mother’s milk and from grazing.

從出生后幾天開始,母馬和小馬駒應當給于安靜,與其他動物隔離開,形成一種親密關系,讓小馬駒得到力量。小馬駒體內只有從母馬身上自然獲得而來的抗體。建立起它自己的抵抗疾病的防御系統需要幾個月時間。野生的小馬駒容易生病,并且很多就是這樣喪生的。幸運的是我們可以給馴養的小馬駒接種疫苗來抵抗很多疾病,像破傷風和馬的流感。因為小馬駒容易通過他們母親的乳汁以及放牧感染寄生蟲,所以從一個月大的時候開始一項除蟲制度是非常重要的。

經過如此長的妊娠期-11個月-你也不想錯過這一刻吧!母馬的生育季節通常在三月到十月

在出生的幾天內能喝到母親的初乳對小馬駒來說是非常有必要的,初乳里含有有益的抗體能保護年幼的動物不生病.


被掠食動物普遍成長得很快,作為一種生存戰略使它們在幼年就能逃離危險.小馬駒能在出生后幾小時內能站起來.它們出生時的體重大概是它們成年后體重的10%.六個月的時候,它們的體重是成年后體重的40%,身高為成年后身高的80%

[此貼子已經被作者于2007-1-30 20:49:39編輯過]

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愛護你的馬,照顧它一生(新增內容:二到四歲)

愛護你的馬,照顧它一生(新增內容:二到四歲)
滄海月明 QQ:183367820 [email protected]

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發表于 2006-11-27 00:09:00 | 只看該作者
辛苦了,好帖。
西安漢唐馬文化傳播有限公司
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恩,月月真厲害啊~加油~

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 樓主| 發表于 2006-11-28 13:45:00 | 只看該作者

恩 這兩天要考試了 忙完了再繼續

滄海月明 QQ:183367820 [email protected]

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發表于 2006-11-28 15:40:00 | 只看該作者
祝你考試成功,繼續完成此文章的翻譯發表工作,期盼中.
西安大唐禮賓騎兵隊----西安馬術俱樂部 http://www.niwota.com/quan/5159128/ 純粹的血統,帶著鮮明純正的基因優勢,是歷經豐厚積淀后形成的特質烙印
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頂一下

賺一帖

拉馬就跑

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發表于 2006-12-1 22:18:00 | 只看該作者

有空得繼續啊

高山、 草原、 荒漠、 大海、河谷........揚鞭策馬

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 樓主| 發表于 2006-12-2 17:16:00 | 只看該作者

遇到麻煩了 還沒有解決 正在努力

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 樓主| 發表于 2006-12-3 18:47:00 | 只看該作者

Early Learning早期學習

Although bred in a domestic situation, it is important for the foal’s development to try to mimic the natural “herd” social

system and, if possible, to have other “nanny” mares and horses/ponies around, as long as the animals get along well

together and are free from disease. Other youngstock will be playmates. A calm veteran will act as a confidence giver and

steadying influence when the foal is faced with new sights and challenges. Horses and ponies brought up with purely

human companions from such an early age often exhibit dangerous behavior, such as biting and barging, as they have not

learned the basis for bonding subordination gained from a natural herd structure. They may also be unable to cope in

a social group of other horses and inadvertently give the wrong signals, making them the subject of bullying.

盡管在家養的環境下出生,為了小馬駒的發展,嘗試模仿自然“馬群”社會體制是很重要的,如果有可能,

在周圍養其它的“奶媽”母馬和馬/矮馬,直到動物們在一起相處得很好并且不會生病。其它的年幼家畜

可以成為它們的玩伴。一位從容的老手會充當一位自信的給予者以及當小馬駒面對新景象和挑戰的時候

會給予持續影響。馬和矮馬從如此小的歲數開始完全地和人類為伴而長大常常會表現出危險的行為,諸

如咬人或四處亂沖撞,因為它們沒有從自然馬群結構中學會基本的服從。它們可能還不會應付社會集體

中其它的馬并且會無意地給錯信號,使它們受欺負。

All we should aim to achieve in the form of schooling is to be able to lead the animal about in a foal slip, tie it up calmly for

a few minutes to be groomed, and lift up each leg without resistance. All this should be done with the mare in close proximity.

所有我們應該計劃完成的調訓形式是能夠給小馬駒戴上籠頭引導它。平靜地將它栓住幾分鐘,為它

刷刷毛,抬抬每一條腿,不許有反抗。所有這些都應該有母馬在近處陪伴下進行。

It is important to have limbs and hooves checked by a vet and farrier. Most of the bones in the limbs have growth

plates containing cartilage positioned near the top(proximal) end and the bottom (distal) end of each bone. As the cartilage

is soft, the limbs need to experience even pressure as they grow for correct limb alignment. The growth plates are soft to

begin with and ossify over time, beginning from the hoof and working up the leg.

請獸醫檢查一下(小馬駒的)四肢和蹄子是很重要的。  大多數四肢的骨頭都有含有軟骨組織的生長面,

位于每根骨頭的頂部(近端)附近和底部(末端)附近。因為軟骨組織是軟的,四肢生長成正直的位置

需要經歷均衡的壓力。生長面最初是軟的,隨著時間發展才慢慢變硬,從蹄子開始一直到腿。

In the wild, any conformational deformities cannot be corrected. They would certainly handicap an animal in later life,

if it managed to survive at all. Fortunately, with human intervention, slight misalignments can usually be corrected at this

early stage in its development.

在野外,任何構形畸形都不能被矯正。如果這個動物無論如何生存下來了,那么它在往后的生活里肯定

會變得殘疾。幸運的是,有人類的干涉,輕微的不正通常可以在它發育的早期被糾正。

給小馬駒戴上籠頭引導它應該在短時期內有母馬在近處陪伴下進行.

圖中展示的做法是為了讓小馬駒注意它的運動并且習慣敏感部位施加的壓力.

檢查蹄子和四肢結構是否正確是非常有必要的,因為可能會出現畸形.為了使小馬駒適應,動作應該溫柔.



 

[此貼子已經被作者于2006-12-8 21:19:51編輯過]
更多圖片 小圖 大圖
組圖打開中,請稍候......
滄海月明 QQ:183367820 [email protected]
八水 該用戶已被刪除
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發表于 2006-12-3 19:22:00 | 只看該作者
有侏侏真好!

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 樓主| 發表于 2006-12-4 01:09:00 | 只看該作者

繼續

確保關節正常發育

蹄鐵匠的定期觀察可以避免馬蹄變的不平整,馬蹄不平會造成四肢受力不均,從而導致生長面發育不均衡.

 

 

 


生長面

小馬駒的骨胳發育從長腿骨兩端的軟骨組織開始,然后逐漸變成骨胳。長腿骨的每一端都有兩個生長面.成熟期,軟骨組織細胞膨脹,然后骨化成骨質.

小馬駒的籠頭需要經常做調整以此避免因為長大而摩傷.沒有監督的情況下,讓小馬駒戴著籠頭是不明智的,因為籠頭有可能會纏住.

 

[此貼子已經被作者于2006-12-4 1:13:54編輯過]
滄海月明 QQ:183367820 [email protected]
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發表于 2006-12-4 21:39:00 | 只看該作者
內容不錯.美中不足的是.文章的字體看上去好象小了點!呵呵...
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發表于 2006-12-6 14:36:00 | 只看該作者

非常感謝為我們提供這么好的學習資料.

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發表于 2006-12-6 14:45:00 | 只看該作者

我是溫州的馬友,有空來我們溫州玩~

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 樓主| 發表于 2006-12-6 19:33:00 | 只看該作者

我也覺得這個資料非常好 所以把它翻譯出來 希望可以幫助更多愛馬的朋友

謝謝樓上的朋友 有機會我一定要去溫州的馬場轉轉 從我家坐車過去可能幾個小時吧 我是湖州的

滄海月明 QQ:183367820 [email protected]

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學習了!真好

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 樓主| 發表于 2006-12-18 14:50:00 | 只看該作者

Six months to two years old六個月到兩歲大

After about six months the foal should be a great deal more independent and we should continue to build up its confidence in people and other animals. In the wild the youngstock would learn from siblings and the older members of the herd, interacting with them and learning their role in the herd hierarchy. The domestic animal has got to become part of the human “herd” in the same way. We are fortune that these young animals will be reliant on us for food and perhaps company, so the process of imprinting desired behaviour on them should not be too difficult as they look on us as both provider and friend.

六個月后小馬駒會更獨立,我們應該繼續建立它與人及其它動物之間的信賴.在野外,小馬駒會向馬群中的兄弟姐妹和年長馬學習,互相影響并且學習它們在階級組織中的角色。同樣的方式,家畜已經成為人類“群體”中的一部分。我們很幸運這些年幼的動物會因為食物或者(我們的)陪伴而信任我們,因此要它們記住預期行為的過程應該并不困難,因為它們將我們視為供給者和朋友。

 

 

 

Throughout the first two years, the bodies of these young colts or fillies will be growing tremendously quickly. It is important that we do not put too many extra strains on them, either physically or mentally, which could impair their natural development. As owners, we should be there to support their needs. By adopting a more natural system of care, we can help them in their development. By this I mean by providing equine (and human) companions to teach them their place in the herd and allowing them time to play and rest so they can both build up muscles and grow without putting too much strain onto their weak frames.

前兩年,這些小雄馬或小雌馬的身體會成長的非常快。重要的是我們不能給它們太多額外的壓力,不論是身體上的還是精神上的,否則會損害它們的自然發展。作為主人,我們應該來扶持它們的需要。采取一項更自然的管理系統,我們可以幫助它們發展。通過這我的意思是提供馬(和人)的陪伴來教它們在馬群中它們所處的位置以及允許它們有時間玩和休息,所以它們可以同時增加肌肉并且不會對它們柔弱的骨架造成太多壓力。

 

 

 

A weaned animal will not have the tailor-made natural diet it previously received from the mare. So it is important that adequate levels of calcium, minerals, and protein are included in the feed intake. The diet of youngstock is a contentious issue as overfeeding or an incorrect diet can lead to problems in later life.

小馬駒斷奶后不會再有像先前從母馬那得到的特制的自然飲食。所以攝取的食物中含有足夠程度的鈣,礦物質,以及蛋白質是很重要的。小馬駒的飲食是一項有爭議的問題因為過度喂食或飲食不正確會導致今后生活中出現問題。

 

 

 

We must aware that horses and ponies mature at different rates depending on their breeding. So while a Thoroughbred’s genes determine that it will be more or less fully development by the age of two years, it is certainly a risky business (and one that may have detrimental effects in the longer term) to overfeed a lanky two year old for the purpose of accelerating its growth for the showing. You must allow sufficient time for the muscles and bones which support the structure to mature.

我們必須注意馬和矮馬受育種的決定成熟速度不同。所以當一個純種的基因決定了,到兩歲的時候它就差不多完全成長了,這無疑是一件冒險事情(在更長的時期可能會有不利的影響)為了促進外表的成長而給兩歲大的消瘦的(馬)過度喂食。你必須給支撐結構的肌肉和骨骼提供足夠的時間來成熟。

 

 

 

As an owner, it is far better simple to give adequate forage and a hard feed designed to prevent deficiencies in youngstock and permit ad-lib grazing if at all possible. Turning the animal out to exercise itself is all that is necessary for muscle development. In this way, we are not trying to force the young animal to resemble and perform like an adult horse. Exercising an immature animal, by lunging for example, can put strain onto the joints and cause deformities such as splints.

作為主人,提供足夠的飼料和嚴格制定的飼養方案避免小馬駒營養不足,在任何情況下可能的話避免自由放牧。為了肌肉的生長所需要做的全部就是帶小馬駒出來讓它自己鍛煉。通過這種方式,我們不是試圖強迫小馬駒模仿和做成年馬的行為。鍛煉不成熟的小馬駒,打個比方通過調教索訓練,會對關節施加壓力以及會造成類似掌骨疣(馬的裂骨或炮骨的擴大)的畸形。

 

 

 

The hooves should be regularly trimmed every six weeks by the farrier. This will probably minimize problems when fitting shoes becomes necessary.

馬蹄應該每六周請蹄鐵匠修整一下。這樣在需要釘蹄鐵的時候很可能會減少問題。

 

 

 


馬蹄應該每六周請蹄鐵匠修整一下.

 


同伴可以幫助小馬駒情緒和身體上穩定。馬類朋友可以在外一起玩耍,而這人類很難提供。

 

馬的后半身生長比較快,所以兩歲大的小馬駒臀部會比馬肩隆高.當馬到達三,四歲的時候,前半身的生長才會跟上.

[此貼子已經被作者于2006-12-18 16:24:32編輯過]
滄海月明 QQ:183367820 [email protected]

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發表于 2006-12-24 11:22:00 | 只看該作者

很好的文章!衷心感謝版主為廣大馬友作出的貢獻,希望能看到更多,呵呵!

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發表于 2006-12-25 19:06:00 | 只看該作者
好文章。學騎馬就應該從了解馬開始。

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頂一下!

好文章。

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